Electric Start Ironheads
Article by Mark Trotta
Early Sportster models (1957-1966) were kickstart only. From 1967 until production's end in 1985, Ironhead Sportsters saw three types of electric starter motors; Prestolite, Hitachi, and Nippodenso.
Up until 1966, all Sportster models had the same frame and engine cases. To accommodate a bigger battery box and electric starter motor, the 1967 XLH received a new frame and engine cases. This was the first Sportster with electric start.
Read: Sportster History
The visual difference between kick and electric Ironhead Sportster cases is more noticeable from the left side of the motor.
On kick-only engines, the primary covers were the original egg-shape, while electric-start primary covers (pictured above) had a rectangle sticking up to accommodate the starter motor.
Ironhead Starter Identification
The fact that all Ironhead-powered Sportsters are now 35+ years old, it's unlikely yours has the original starter, and even less likely there's a readable sticker telling you which one you have.
Early electric starter motors (1967-1973) were Prestolite units (31458-66B). They were mounted with two long bolts that had a 1/4"-20 thread.
From 1974 through early 1976, starter motors could be either Prestolite or Hitachi. The two long bolts on the Hitachi unit had 5mm (metric) threads.
Shop: Prestolite Starter for Sportster
From late 1976 until 1980, only Prestolite starters were fitted to Sportsters.
Hitachi vs Prestolite Starters
These two starters are similar in physical size; the Prestolite is slightly larger (about 6" x 3") and heavier (about 11 pounds). The Hitachi is a little smaller (5.25" x 3") and a little lighter (8 pounds). Both use a separate starter solenoid.
The Prestolite starter has brushes that are soldered directly to the field coils. The Hitachi has brushes which are soldered to the brush holder. Popular choice goes to the Prestolite, but if your motor is stock, either one will work fine.
Are Hitachi And Prestolite Starters Interchangeable?
Well, yes and no. The long thru-bolts are a different thread size, which means the threads in the starter housing that the bolts go into are different. If you want to swap one for the other, you will need to use the correct starter housing with the correct thru-bolts.
My old 1976 Sportster had a Hitachi starter, which I replaced along with the bendix gear and solenoid.
1981-1985 Ironhead Starters
In 1981, Sportsters were updated to a Nippodenso starter, which is a one-piece starter, starter drive, and solenoid unit. This same starter would be fitted to all Ironhead and Evo Sportsters through the 2012 model year.
Shop: Sportster Starter (1981-2012)
The Nippodenso unit is more reliable and more powerful than the previous starters, but requires removal of the primary cover to remove and replace.
Convert Evo Starter To Ironhead
An adaptor plate would need to be fabricated to mount the Nippodenso starter onto a pre-1982 Ironhead motor. Modifications would have to be made to (at least) the oil tank and battery tray. By all measures, it will be a tight fit, and the starter will stick out further then the original.
Convert Kick-Start Ironhead Sportster To Electric Start
Early Sportster models from 1957 through 1966 were kick-start only and cannot be converted to electric start. All XLCH motors were kick-only until 1969 and cannot be converted to electric start.
From 1971-1980, all Sportster models shared the same engine cases, so you can convert a 1971-1980 kick-start only bike into an electric start bike. This is possible because the starter shaft housing is a bolt-on part.
Electric-start Sportster models were fitted with either starter shaft housing #31462-67 for Prestolite starters or #31462-74 for Hitachi starters.
To convert a kick-start Sportster to an electric start, your existing clutch drum must have a starter ring gear attached. Check if your primary cover has a bushing pressed into the inside of the cover to accommodate the starter shaft. You'll also need the bendix gear, starter shaft, and plunger assembly. On 1971-80 models, a larger battery and side-mount oil tank can be easily fitted.
An electric-start Ironhead motor will not fit into an early frame.
The nut on the starter shaft (also called a jack shaft) that attaches to the starter drive (31483-67) has a left hand thread.
If you need to remove primary chain, compensating sprocket, and clutch shell, read Primary Chain Removal
To replace a Bendix starter gear, read Replace Sportster Bendix Gear