Electrical Wiring For Motorcycles
Electrical problems are one of the biggest challenges when building a classic or custom bike. Unlike mechanical issues, what's not working may not be visible to the eye.
A factory service manual for your year and model motorcycle is helpful, but I've found discrepancies in manuals numerous times. Your common sense should override anything you read.
Making A Wire Harness
Wires and their connections develop oxidization over time, which lead to poor connectivity and eventual failure. Replacing a single wire or connector may fix your electrical problem, but if this happens several times, consider rewiring the entire bike.
On several of my projects, I started from scratch with nothing but a simple wiring diagram I drew out. I started with mounting the battery, then the other electrical components; the coil, headlight, taillight, ignition switch, and speedometer.
Most old motorcycles use 16g or 18g copper wire insulated with plastic. For starter and generator wires a heavier 14g is needed. This is standard automotive-type wire commonly found in auto part stores. If the wire colors cannot be duplicated from original colors, make a note for future reference.
Use quality connectors or solder joints (preferred) and heat shrink your connections. Make sure that the battery and motor are well grounded to the frame.
To make a wiring harness, or completely rewire a bike, you will need:
- Wire cutters/strippers
- Soldering gun and soldering wire
- Multi-meter or Test-Light
Drawing a wiring diagram out in a notebook (no matter how simple) helps visualize what needs to go where. It should show where each wire is starting, where it will end up, and what color it will be. Abbreviations for wire colors are usually "BK" for black and "BL" for blue, "R" for red, etc. While rewiring your motorcycle, take pictures of everything for future reference.
I prefer to route any length of wire in plastic wire looms. Some builders like wrapping wires in electrical tape, or use heatshrink tubing. All these methods will work, what's importatnt is that the wires are secure and are away from any sharp edges, All wires should be away from heat (cylinders and exhaust).
Generator Charging Problems
Your classic bike's generator or alternator really doesn't charge the battery until engine rpm is considerably higher than idle. Trips that are less than 15-20 miles are typically not enough to recharge the battery's losses from starting. Consider upgrading to a trouble-free aftermarket generator like Cycle-Electric.
buy Cycle Electric 12V Generator with Regulator
The Cycle Electric generator is a complete 12V charging system with a built-in regulator, simple two-wire hookup, higher output, and longer service life. It's the last generator you will have to buy for your bike!
Amp Gauge vs Volt Gauge
An amp gauge will tell you the amount of amps passing into or being drawn out of the battery. A voltmeter will tell you the "pressure" behind the amps.
Motorcycle Battery Care and Maintenance
Getting tired of buying a new motorcycle battery every couple years? Seems we neglect them until there's a problem, unnecessary damage is done, and we're spending money for a new one.
A motorcycle battery has a harder life than a car battery. Not only are the plates inside them more fragile, but they are subject to much greater vibration.
read Motorcycle Maintenance
Handlebars are one of the first things riders change. If you're thinking of installing taller handlebars, you'll need to extend the switch wiring harness. Many wire extension kits are available that have the right colors and terminals for your year and model. Or you can be creative and make your own.
read How To Wire Through Handlebars
Wiring up a motorcycle is always a challenge.