Motorcycle Engine Build
(text and pictures by Mark Trotta)
So you're thinking of tearing down the old bike's engine and freshening it up a bit? Three things are for certain; it's not going to be cheap, it's not going to happen quickly, and they'll be surprises.
Unlike classic car builders, who can order a crate motor and have it delivered to their door, the classic motorcycle builder has just two choices when needing an engine overhaul; rebuild the engine themselves, or find a shop that is reputable, dependable, reasonably priced, and familiar with vintage engines.
There's a lot to consider before starting a complete engine build. And of course, things go much smoother when you plan them out and have the right tools for the job.
Engine teardown is generally the first step in motorcycle restoration, and includes disassembly, cleaning, inspection, and assessing what is reusable.
Run a few tests before dismantling the motor. If you can kick the motor over, check for spark and compression. If your new bike project is non-running, hopefully you only paid scrap prices, because there's a fair chance the engine is scrap.
A motorcycle engine build can be broken down into sub-categories. These include top end, bottom end, transmission, clutch, carb/gas, oil pump, and electrics (distributor, generator). Remember that each and every step, large or small, is as important as the others.
Before you start your disassembling the engine, get a notebook and/or take pictures. If you're a DIY mechanic, you may not be able to work on it day after day, so write down/document everything, especially in what order things came apart. (The longer it sits, the more you forget!)
With the exception of a few specialty tools, you should be able to take your engine apart with basic hand tools.
Inspect and measure parts as you remove them.
Inspect the engine cases for stripped threads and cracks.
Read: Repair Stripped Threads In Aluminum
Cracked Engine Cases
Aluminum engine cases can be repaired and made as good as new, provided the repair was done right. Don't entrust this job to someone whose only qualification is that they own a welding machine.
Trying to save money here is false economy - a welder with good intentions can make the damage worse than it is. Find someone who is experienced at welding cast aluminum and have it MIG or TIG welded.
Read: Repair Cracked Cases
Bottom End Engine Build
The bottom end can be disassembled only after the top end (cylinders, heads, etc) has been removed. Bottom end reconditioning includes checking piston to cylinder wall clearances and cleaning the piston crowns. A cylinder hone or over-bore may be necessary.
Inspection of parts include pistons, rings, wrist pins, and bearings. If there are any doubts, replace suspect parts while the motor is apart. Oil pump upgrades/modifications can be done at this time.
Engine Case Sealant
There are dozens of products to seal engine cases, and the ones that are sold at automotive parts stores are almost always wrong for your motorcycle.
Read: Anaerobic Gasket Sealant Review
Top End Engine Build
Compared to the bottom-end, a top-end rebuild is easier. Correct measurements are crucial to choose between a re-ring or re-bore. If the motor was burning oil, a re-ring is usually necessary.
Boring And Honing Cylinders
Boring motorcycle cylinders with a hand-held tool will take much longer than a $5,000 shop machine can do it in. But, whether cylinder boring is done in a machine shop or in your home garage, the results will be as good as the operator.
Read: DIY Motorcycle Cylinder Boring
Read: DIY Motorcycle Cylinder Honing
Proper valve seating is crucial to a strong-running engine, and the quality of any valve job will be co-dependant on valves, guides, and springs.
If you need valve guides, aftermarket ones are available for most classic bikes. Worn guides are usually pressed out and new ones pressed in.
The use of three-angle seats in cylinder heads has been an industry standard for decades. This is done by having a relief angle above and below a 45 degree center contact surface.
Read: What Is A Three-Angle Valve Job ?
Read: How To Lap Valves
Many classic bikes have unit transmissions. Two notable exceptions are vintage Triumphs and Big-Twin Harleys, which have separate transmission housings.
When a unit transmission seizes up, it often takes the engine case with it.
Rebuilding a motorcycle transmission will include removing/inspecting/replacing bearings, shift forks, gears, seals, and gaskets. Transmission work is tedious and requires precision measuring tools.
Motorcycle Engine Building Tips
If you decide to sandblast your engine parts, make sure there's no grit left. Clean them thoroughly, two or three times if necessary.
Meticulous attention to detail and cleanliness are needed to build a reliable, strong-running motorcycle engine. If valves open and close tightly and at the appropriate times, maximum engine efficiency and performance will be achieved.
A factory service manual for your year and model motorcycle is helpful, but I've found discrepancies in manuals numerous times. Your common sense should override anything you read.
Glyptal Pros and Cons
There are some that swear this product. Personally, I never felt the need for it. Some claim it seals the inside of the block and fills in any open pores, giving the oil less resistance so it drains back to the pan quicker. A common reply is, "I've never heard of an engine locking up because all the oil was stuck to the sides of the block." Another argument in favor of Glyptal are "it keeps your engine clean", but so does changing your oil on a regular basis.
One particular concern about using Glyptal on motorcycle engine cases is, if gas leaks through the carburetor while your bike is on it's side-stand, the unburned gas would eat away the finish on the inside of the cases.
Re-assembly is always harder than disassembly. Everything is easier when you have quality engine tools.
Never Take Anything For Granted
A motorcycle engine build requires measuring and re-measuring, assembly, disassembly, and reassembly. Make sure everything is right before continuing to the next step.
The longer you handle the old engine components, the more time you have to notice any defects. If you just give them a quick cleaning, you may miss something.
Outside sources needed while restoring your engine include parts suppliers, tool suppliers, and possibly a machine shop.
Read: DIY vs Machine Shop
Rebuilding a motorcycle engine could (and often does) become long and tedious, particularly if parts are hard to find. But if you get stuck, there's countless forums and internet videos to help you get back on track.